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Let’s get clinical

Hazardous Drug Exposure takes many forms.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) defines a CSTD as “a drug transfer device that mechanically prohibits the transfer of environmental contaminants into the system and the escape of hazardous drug or vapor concentrations outside the system.”
Or simply as a system that lets nothing in and nothing out.

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Peer-Reviewed
2018
#air-tight

Application of the 2015 proposed NIOSH vapor containment performance protocol for closed system transfer devices used during pharmacy compounding and administration of hazardous drugs

University of North Carolina
Peer-Reviewed
2021
#syringe-contamination

An Assessment of Exposed Syringe Inner Walls as a Route of Exposure from Hazardous Drugs

UNC Eshelman School of Pharmacy
Peer-Reviewed
2015
#Head of Pharmacy
#Pharmacist
#plunger-contamination

Syringe plunger contamination by hazardous drugs: A comparative study

Journal Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Peer-Reviewed
2013
#CSTD Preparation
#Head of Pharmacy
#Pharmacist
#surface-contamination

Use of a closed system drug-transfer device eliminates surface contamination with antineoplastic agents

Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center, Fairview Hospital
Peer-Reviewed
2005
#Head of Pharmacy
#Nurse
#Pharmacist
#plunger-contamination

Contamination of Syringe Plungers During the Sampling of Cyclophosphamide Solutions​

Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Independent
2019

PPC 2016 Poster Abstract

Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists
Independent
2019
#microbial ingress

Development of an On-Going Sterility Monitoring Program for Single-Use Vials Undergoing Multiple Access Following Application of a Closed System Transfer Device

Canadian Society of Hospital Pharmacists
Independent
2008
#leak-proof

Leakproof Connection Integrity Test For Devices Intended for Handling Hazardous Drugs

University of Utah
Independent
2014
#plunger-contamination

Evaluation of syringes used for compounding hazardous drugs and the contamination risks to healthcare personnel

FASHP Nebraska Methodist Hospital